What were drawbacks of Green Revolution? Describe major ecological foundations ofEvergreen Revolution

Drawbacks of the Green Revolution:

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  1. Environmental Impacts: The Green Revolution heavily relied on the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation systems, which resulted in environmental degradation. Excessive use of chemical inputs led to soil erosion, water pollution, and loss of biodiversity. The long-term ecological impacts of these practices are still being felt today.
  2. Depletion of Natural Resources: The intensive farming practices of the Green Revolution put immense pressure on natural resources. Excessive groundwater extraction for irrigation led to the depletion of aquifers and lowered water tables. Large-scale deforestation occurred to make way for agricultural expansion, leading to habitat loss and decreased ecological resilience.
  3. Loss of Traditional Farming Practices: The Green Revolution promoted the adoption of high-yielding crop varieties and modern farming techniques, which often replaced traditional, diverse farming systems. As a result, many indigenous crop varieties and traditional farming practices were abandoned, leading to a loss of genetic diversity and cultural heritage.
  4. Socioeconomic Disparities: The Green Revolution favored larger farmers with access to resources, such as irrigation facilities and credit, while marginalizing small farmers. The high cost of inputs, such as hybrid seeds and fertilizers, created a financial burden for small-scale farmers, widening socioeconomic disparities and leading to rural migration.
  5. Dependency on External Inputs: The Green Revolution created a dependency on external inputs, such as hybrid seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides, which increased production costs for farmers. This reliance on costly inputs made small-scale farmers vulnerable to market fluctuations and reduced their autonomy and resilience.

Major Ecological Foundations of Evergreen Revolution:
The Evergreen Revolution, also known as the Second Green Revolution, aims to address the limitations and drawbacks of the initial Green Revolution while promoting sustainable agricultural practices. Its major ecological foundations include:

  1. Conservation Agriculture: The Evergreen Revolution emphasizes conservation agriculture practices that promote soil health, water conservation, and biodiversity preservation. These practices include minimum tillage, mulching, cover cropping, and crop rotation, which help improve soil fertility, reduce erosion, and enhance the natural ecosystem functions of agricultural landscapes.
  2. Organic Farming and Agroecology: The Evergreen Revolution emphasizes the adoption of organic farming practices and the principles of agroecology. Organic farming avoids synthetic inputs and focuses on building soil fertility through the use of organic matter, crop diversification, and biological pest control. Agroecology promotes the integration of ecological principles in agricultural systems, fostering biodiversity, natural pest regulation, and sustainable resource management.
  3. Sustainable Water Management: The Evergreen Revolution recognizes the importance of sustainable water management in agriculture. It promotes water-efficient irrigation techniques such as drip irrigation, sprinklers, and precision farming to reduce water wastage. Water harvesting, conservation ponds, and watershed management are also encouraged to enhance water availability for farming and restore water resources.
  4. Climate Resilience: The Evergreen Revolution focuses on building climate resilience in agricultural systems. It promotes the use of climate-smart practices, such as climate-resilient crop varieties, agroforestry, and integrated farming systems that enhance biodiversity, improve soil carbon sequestration, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  5. Sustainable Livelihoods: The Evergreen Revolution recognizes the importance of sustainable livelihoods for small-scale farmers. It emphasizes the integration of agriculture with other income-generating activities such as agro-processing, value addition, and rural entrepreneurship. Diversification of income sources helps reduce vulnerability, enhance food security, and improve the overall socioeconomic well-being of farming communities.

The Evergreen Revolution aims to achieve sustainable and inclusive agricultural development by integrating ecological principles, resource conservation, and socioeconomic considerations. It strives to move away from intensive, input-dependent agriculture towards resilient and environmentally friendly farming systems.

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