Discuss the main features of communalism and fundamentalism

Communalism and fundamentalism are both ideologies that involve the strong adherence to a particular religious, ethnic, or cultural group, often at the expense of others.

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They are characterized by a strong sense of identity and a belief in the superiority of one’s own group, often leading to conflict with other groups.

Communalism refers to the belief that one’s own religious or ethnic community is superior to others and that the community’s interests should take precedence over those of the larger society. Communalism can lead to the formation of enclaves, or closed communities that are often hostile to outsiders. In extreme cases, it can lead to communal violence and even genocide.

Fundamentalism, on the other hand, is a term used to describe a belief system that emphasizes the literal interpretation of religious texts and a strict adherence to religious laws and traditions. It often involves a rejection of modernity and secularism, as well as a belief in the superiority of one’s own religious group. Fundamentalism can be found in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, among others.

Both communalism and fundamentalism can have a negative impact on society, as they often promote intolerance, division, and conflict. However, it is important to note that not all individuals who identify with a particular religious or cultural group are communal or fundamentalist in their beliefs. It is only when these beliefs are taken to extremes and used to justify discrimination and violence that they become problematic.

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